Wen Leaves India Worried- Kashmir Crisis

With just one line Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao has transfixed India on the issue of Jammu and Kashmir and rendered irrelevant the boundary question, stapled visas and a lot more. By stating that the boundary dispute covers just 2000 kms he has excised nearly 1600 km in Jammu and Kashmir from the purview of the border talks and rendered the whole State open to bite-sized morsels and wholesale gobbling. The first signs of a major shift in Chinese negotiating position on the boundary question was made available to the National Democratic Alliance Government when China refused to exchange maps showing claim lines in the Western sector encompassing North-east Jammu and Kashmir segments of Aksai Chin. It was followed up more recently with Chinese claims to the whole of Arunachal Pradesh. The raising of two new Mountain Divisions by India could prove to be too little too late.Ten thousand Chinese troops are already in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir broadening the Karakoram Highway and laying the foundations of a rail link and pipelines to Gwadar on the Balochistan coastline. In hindsight it could well be that Pakistan’s former Army Chief General Pervez Musharraf was instigated by Beijing into launching of the intrusion into the Kargil sector in 1999 to test India’s reactions. Musharraf, after all, was in Beijing when it happened and was directing operations from there. Pakistan’s “all-weather friend” was taken aback by India’s ferocious defence of Kargil. Jammu and Kashmir has become a fait accompli and if India does not read the signs correctly Arunachal too will follow suit. The potential for trouble for India through Nepal has not yet dawned on the Indian consciousness.

One is already seeing the fringes of future Chinese foreign policy in the manner it has reacted to joint military operations in areas off the Chinese coastline.Its instigation of its proxy North Korea has brought the two Koreas to the brink of war. By comparison India’s riposte on Tibet and the breakaway Chinese province of Taiwan are mere pinpricks that will not halt the tide of Beijing’s aggressive designs all around its periphery. The joint communique issued at the end of Wen Jiabao’s visit tells its own story in the absence of a condemnation of the terrorist attack on Mumbai where the Pakistan hand is redolent in blood. Talking about containing terrorism without concrete steps to curb it in realpolitik means tacit abetment. If Chinese leaders find it difficult to pinpoint the cause of the malaise, the reasons are obvious that Beijing sees in these tactics by its friends a fulfillment of its options on what it calls “core issues”.China says that it is not stoking insurgencies in the north-east of India but it is still host to ULFA cadres and intelligence from captured appear to point to the possibility that China is also the banker where UL:FA is stashing away the money extorted from the people of Asom and adjoining States of the North-east. In contrast India’s response to continuing Chinese intrusions across the Line of Actual Control is tepid and it is obvious that huge tracts are left unattended or anyone to talk in and take possession as happened in Kargil.

New Delhi allowed itself to be talked into “downsizing” its military manpower to the point that it now finds itself scrambling to raise new Divisions to take care of a threat that is larger than is perceived. The trade links are being held out as an improvement of bilateral relations.International commerce is usually seen as a harmonizer and mutual inter-dependence leading to peace and stability. However, an uncontrollable trade imbalance carries with it its own dangers of undercutting one’s own economy in the long run as the American overdependence on Chinese financial instruments is showing itself. Trade could well be a lollypop to suck on and become complacent and Taiwan appears to be reacting to Chinese investment. The Taiwan card in India’s hand could well be suborned by other considerations in Taipeh. India needs also to remember that creating a linkage between the Tibet issue and the J and K stapled visas does not quite have an equal weightage. Only if it is willing to do in Tibet what China is doing through Pakistan will there be something concrete to go by. China is in no hurry to resolve the border issue. Wen made it clear that there is no solution on the horizon when he said that it will take a long time to resolve the border dispute.

Rajiv Gandhi Mahila Vikas Pariyojna

Rajiv Gandhi Mahila Vikas Pariyojna (RGMVP) was initiated in 2002-03 in collaboration with the Rajiv Gandhi Charitable Trust to facilitate the formation of SHGs in two districts of -UP: Sultanpur and Raebareli. In the last seven years, RGMVP’s reach has extended to 55 blocks spread across 14 backward districts of the state. The programme now reaches out to over 2,33,594 families, 19,228 women’s SHGs, 531 village level SHG federations and 15 Block level federations across the project area. The savings generated have been leveraged through borrowings from banks and invested in a diversified portfolio of income generating activities.Rajiv Gandhi Mahila Vikas Pariyojna is also accociated with Baiga community in Chhattisgarh largely depends on forest and natural resources for its livelihood and is one of the poorest tribal groups in the country. RGF has partnered with Samarth to initiate SHGs in the area. The SHG members are gradually being trained on various livelihood options based on natural resources such as bamboo product making, grass products, organic farming, vermin compost making, etc. Currently, 200 women are a part of the project. We have made attempts to reach out to the community by conducting the Padyatra Programme (rally on foot) highlighting issues such as non-availability of government schemes and benefits. They community is also encouraged to develop micro plans which are presented at theNatural Resource Management is the flagship livelihood promotion programme of the Foundation directly implemented in the remote villages of Rajasthan.

The programme is implemented on the principle that because of water scarcity and growing competition large swathes of rural communities are pushed towards impoverishment and could threaten equitable and sustainable development, ecological balance and political stability. The increasing gap between the water availability and demand highlights the need to conserve, utilize and manage this important resource in a sustainable manner.Foundation started its NRM interventions in the remote areas of the Rajasthan state covering backward villages of Jaipur, Pali and Karoli district. The project area was selected on the basis of the poor conditions of the natural resources and willingness of the partner community to participate in the programme. The extreme economic backwardness of the region may be attributed in some measure directly to environmental degradation arising from lack of appropriate planning and poor developmental interventions. The natural resources in the region are in poor conditions because the geographic location does not support the abundant rainfall, poor quality and excessive depth of ground water, absence of Perennial River, open scrub forests and huge withdrawal from limited ground waterWater harvesting Programme is RGF’s only directly implemented initiative under its livelihood promotion portfolio.

Livelihood options are generated through creation of water harvesting structures, initiating watershed activities, adopting and inculcating improved agriculture practices. At present the work is spread over in 115 villages, where 208 water harvesting structures have been constructed. The most pronounced benefit from the water harvesting structures has been in agriculture productivity. Because of water availability in wells and tube wells farmers have therefore been able to provide more irrigation to their crops which has led to increase in productivity, switch to more remunerative crops and increased net area under cultivation. To ensure that the communities have an ongoing stake in the assets being created, it is ensured that a minimum of 33 percent of the total expenditure would be borne by the community for works carried out on common lands whereas for individual and small user groups the contribution has been fixed at 50 percent or more.

Can Our Military Continue to Keep Terrorism Away From Our Borders?

I had hoped not to see the beginning of this new shift in the war on terror but itcertainly seems to be here to stay.. I have noticed that al Qaeda seems to be initiating the recruiting and sending of terrorists to the United States to conduct attacks on American soil. This trend is troubling because at some timer they might be able to slip solitary terrorists or small groups of terrorists through. If we don’t want this to happen we will have to keep our eyes open. I first create this article with the attempted Christmas bombing, the botched scheme to bomb the subway in New York City and the botched attempt to bomb Times Square recently.

Since then there have been even more developments with the latest being the capture of the two terrorist wannabes in New Jersey. They were not aware that they had been under surveillance for a few years. Federal authorities had watched them long enough to determine that they had no real contacts in al-Qaeda so they were virtually insignificant.We as citizens of this nation’s control have been so well protected that we are living in a sort of lala land. We are not acutely aware of the grave danger that we could suddenly find ourselves in because of terrorists. We can’t depend on our government to shield us we are to remain free from terrorist attacks we be obliged to stay vigilant. Each one of these lone attempts to kill Americans were luckily averted but luck doesn’t last forever. We might possibly not be so lucky again. We be obliged to stay vigilant and help our government to shield us. We must be obliged to remain alert to all things just so we can catch the one minor thing which would tip us off to terrorist activity. The beauty of the war on terror so far in this country is that all of the incidents of war have been in other countries.

American citizens have not had to witness the horrors and atrocities of this war except in a few incidents. This war has not been very costly in the loss of the lives of our wives and children. Enemy combatants have been mostly limited to Iraq, and Afghanistan where they have had to use small arms to fight with well trained and well armed UA ans NATO troops. Enemy combatants are even leaving this nation to operate overseas and fight with the insurgents there rather than to attempt to conduct attacks here in the United States.Errant bombs have not been destroying our homes and businesses as they have in the countries where the battles are being fought. American servicemen and women can tell you of the conditions in many of the countries in which they are average American civilian lives a much better lifestyle than the average civilian of most other nations. Al-Qaeda seems to be actively recruiting more operatives to transmit to the United States to conduct terror operations here. Our troops serving overseas are doing a wonderful job of keeping the actual danger away from the innocent men, women, and children of this country. We can’t take our relaxed life life style for granted. There are many other countries where the population knows nothing other than war. We must continue to give every bit of the support that we can to our military and our government as they attempt to keep terrorism away from our borders.

Not Born on the 4th of July

This year’s 4th of July was a most memorable one for me. My wife and I had the honor of attending the Citizenship Ceremony for new Americans at the William Paca [pronounced PayKa] House & Gardens in Annapolis, Maryland. What struck me most about the event was that these 38 new Americans understand better than many native born Americans what being an American really means. Each of them left a life, a family, and a cultural heritage to join us in “the land of the free and the home of the brave.”For we Americans, there is nothing very unusual about that. Every human being in North America is either an immigrant, or descended directly from someone who was. This is true of even so-called “native Americans,” since there were no human beings at all in North or South America before 13,000 years ago, a virtual blink in human existence.I often ask my fellow Americans what one factor above all others is the reason for the strength and success of the United States of America. Few have a clear-cut answer. I believe our strength is our Diversity, which I see as the Glory of God.Unlike monolithic societies, where one person or group dominates everyone in various nefarious ways, in the United States we have hundreds of groups of very different national origin, religions, races, and points of view. Whenever one of these groups has a good idea, everyone adopts it.

I use Starbucks as my example of a good idea, which is now adopted globally. Whenever a bad idea emerges, the other groups pound it out of the system by vigorous debate. It is a tempering process, like that used in making steel. Slavery is my example of a bad idea.The day was made more special for me by sharing it with our guest, Lama Phurbu Tashi Rinpoche, a Tibetan Buddhist monk and a refugee, who plans to be another new American in a couple of years. Watching him interact with the period costumed actors representing the 1st Maryland Regiment and the Colonial Ladies was a particular treat. Because of his saffron and purple robes, many at the event, including the news media, thought he was one of the day’s honorees, so he was interviewed several times.The Director of the Baltimore office of the Immigration Service told us that they create new citizens every day-18,000 or so in Maryland each year. But this event on the 4th of July is a particularly meaningful occasion.

The venue in the William Paca House & Gardens is within a block of the 1st Capitol building of the United States, the Maryland State House.William Paca was one of 4 signers of the Declaration of Independence from Maryland. Whenever I give visitors tours of Annapolis, I always point out the magnificent mansions of these courageous men, to show what they were putting at risk when they signed the document. They were committing treason against the British Crown, and, as Benjamin Franklin put it succinctly, “We either hang together or we will hang separately!”After the ceremony, I mentioned to one of the new Americans that, as an American, I am very proud of them, because they know the meaning of being an American better than many of our native born countrymen. I told one, “You know what it means to be an American, so if we forget, you remind us!”

It’s Official. There Is Finally A Real GOP Candidate For 2012. Ex-Governor Tim Pawlenty.

by Dr. Jeffrey LantLet me tell you something about presidential candidates: the day they announce for the highest office in the land, they figure they’ll be the top story… their mug on the front page of America’s great dailies, their story featured on the three major commercial networks… and, of course, the object of endless glib commentary on Fox News and CNN.For Pawlenty, the first announced Republican candidate, it just didn’t happen.To be sure, there were really major stories being covered March 21, 2011. Can you say nuclear reactors in Japan? That military dust-up in Libya? But even so, you would have thought Pawlenty would have gotten something.And what’s got to irk Pawlenty good and plenty is that he has at least some credibility, not least that he was a moderately conservative governor (twice!) of a reliably Democratic state. When Pawlenty looks in the mirror, mirror on the wall… who’s the one he sees most of all? Can you say Ronald Reagan?But Pawlenty got skunked… his Hollywood style introduction video ignored… his message to America undelivered.

What a revoltin’ development this is. If it had been Tim’s predecessor in the Minnesota governor’s office — colorful ex-wrestler and mouth man Jesse Ventura — you can bet there would have been coverage, lots of coverage.Tim’s gotta wonder…”Gentlemen prefer blondes” (1926), Anita Loos said. In the sequel, she told us “But Gentlemen marry brunettes” (1928). Tim can only hope that he’s seen as the man America wants to marry. If only he can figure out how to get a date to strut his (good boy) stuff…Minnesota… always the bridesmaid, never the bride.Pity the state of Minnesota. It has had a respectable number of presidential candidates… but nary even a one-term president amongst them.Harold Stassen was the hot stuff in 1938 when he was America’s youngest governor. He got a really bad case of Potomac Fever right away (1944) and never did get rid of it. He became a national joke running for president over and over again, a (bad) joke. Minnesota cringed.Then there was Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr., who actually got the Democrat’s nomination in 1968… and came within a hair of winning the presidency. “Tricky Dick” Nixon’s most important trick was getting the presidency that year. A profoundly decent man, Humphrey learned the hard way that loyalty (to Lyndon Johnson and his Vietnam policy) isn’t what gets you elected; hard headed realism is. Nixon had it… Hubert didn’t.The next presidential candidate from Minnesota, Jimmy Carter’s vice president Walter Mondale had this fundamental decency and honesty, too, and it killed him.Right out of the box Mondale, the very essence of the Minnesota boy next door, you know, the one who carries in your groceries with a smile and declines the tip, slaughtered himself. He told America the truth — that the deficit was unsustainable and there would have to be new taxes. (Deja vu all over again….)I had to admire the man’s guts… but you knew, right then, he was a goner.

Ronald Reagan crushed him… and went on to GOP sainthood, the prototype of how to finesse the truth and become the Big Winner.Get the picture?Now there’s Timmy Pawlenty, and here’s what you need to know about him. His original career choice was… dentist. I kid you not… and once you know it you can see him in white coat, dazzling smile, personable, confiding manner; the man who says “open wide”, “little pinch”, “spit here.”He’d have been a cinch for president of the Minnesota Dental Association… and a lifetime achievement award from the Kiwanis.What’s he bring to the table?The problem with those Boy Scout types, the nice guys, is that nice is what they’ve got, all they’ve got. Timmie’s got likability all right but anything else?His ascent.He was born November 17, 1960, of German and Polish ancestry. You’ll hear about his teamster father; his mother who died of cancer when he was 15. And about his meat packing neighborhood with that all-pervasive dead meat smell. (Don’t mention that bit too much, Tim; it definitely puts people off. Ask not for whom the smell tolls… it tolls for thee.)Born Roman Catholic, Pawlenty became an evangelical Christian… a fact he will leverage to the max, to get those all important conservative Republican and Tea Party supporters. Powerful, they’ll demand a hefty price.Pawlenty’s political career shows what nice guys are capable of achieving. He was elected to the Egan, Minnesota city council in 1989, age 28. Elected to the Minnesota House of Representatives in 1992, he was re-elected five times and was chosen House Majority Leader when Republicans became the majority party in the State Legislature in 1998.He won a hard fought victory in the Republican gubernatorial primary in 2002… then beat aggressive candidates from the Minnesota Democratic- Farmer-Labor Party and the Independence Party. He was re-elected in 2006. Impressive yes. Memorable no! And the high point of his rhetoric was: “We need to be a party of Sam’s Club, not just the country club.” Churchillian, he isn’t. And America likes its presidents to be masters of soaring speech.Now the nicest guy aims at the highest office. Everyone will like him. Almost no one with think him the Great White Hope of America, and his poll numbers will always be anemic. Just as they are now.You see Tim suffers from Minnesotitis… the disease that takes boys next door and turns them into likable cogs in the wheel… always on the team, hardly ever the captain and never ever champion. Leo Durocher summed up their plight in 1939 with his immortal line, “Nice guys finish last.” Tim Pawlenty is about to discover just how deflatingly true that is, as he joins the list of nice guys from Minnesota who couldn’t wow America.???

Rajiv Gandhi: a Loving Husband, Caring Father , Son of The Soil.

He was not only a Prime minister of a Nation looking for a new identity, but he was a man who upheld values and traditions. Here is an analysis account of his basic nature as a human being and a s a public and private person(while he was alive)-Rajiv Gandhi is very sensitive, cautious, and shy about showing others his feelings. Though he may love and care for someone a great deal, Rajiv Gandhi rarely expresses his feelings openly and freely. Very often Gandhi’s love for someone is expressed by his wish to help him, do something tangible to benefit him or serve him in some way.It is also difficult for him to receive warmth, affection or appreciation, for he often feels that he does not really deserve it or that “they do not really mean it”. Gandhi may therefore come across as rather cool and aloof – much more so than he has often talked about how he feels that the expectations from him are enormous.It was sometimes felt that a deeply ingrained critical attitude often makes Rajiv difficult to live with. Rajiv Gandhi has a soft exterior and tends to relate very personally and sympathetically to other people. However, Rajiv sometimes lets his emotions overpower his reasoning and logic, and consequently he is sometimes biased in his opinions. Rajiv Gandhi is impressionable and rather gentle, or at least that is the way he comes across. Rajiv wears his heart on his sleeves and cannot hide his emotions.No matter how he appears on the surface, Rajiv Gandhi has a very soft heart and others can always appeal to Rajiv’s sympathetic, affectionate side. He especially cares about the needs of children, mothers and families, and he wants a love partner who values marriage, home and family as much as he does. Gandhi is profoundly offended by unkindness or harshness.He is tolerant and forgiving and always ready to overlook mistakes and give others a second chance.

Rajiv Gandhi expects, and draws out, the best from people and he enjoys making others comfortable and happy. Because of his emotional generosity, his life is rich with friends, and often financial blessings as well. There is another side to Rajiv Gandhi as well, a rather introverted, self-contained, even pessimistic side which tempers his good cheer and generosity, as discussed below.He is dedicated to the people he cares about and conscientious about fulfilling his responsibilities, especially to family. Family solidarity and cohesiveness are very important to Rajiv Gandhi; accordingly, so are the traditions, rituals, and memories that keep the bonds strong.Rajiv Gandhi is apt to do more than his fair share in the family and go the extra mile, but for the most part this is satisfying rather than burdensome to him.In addition to Rajiv’s rather introverted, serious or self-contained side, he has a wild streak and urge for emotional freedom that breaks through erratically. Rajiv Gandhi craves both stability and excitement, and the conflict between these two impulses can make Gandhi rather tense and irritable. However, they can also balance each other out. His free and unpredictable side will now be described.Rajiv Gandhi craves excitement, change and discovery, and cannot tolerate a routine or lifestyle that offers little in the way of surprise or challenge. Excitable, spontaneous and enthusiastic about anything new, he may be perceived by others as being too impulsive, especially in personal relationships. It is not easy for Rajiv Gandhi to make or keep commitments, since he does not know how he will be feeling from one day to the next. Emotional freedom is very important to Gandhi. He is warm and affectionate in his relationships with others and has the ability to see the others’ point of view, which is greatly appreciated by those around him. Rajiv Gandhi is emotionally well balanced and also has a well developed intellectual grasp.He is not afraid to take chances and follow his ambitions with great determination and courage.

A bit impatient and quick tempered, Gandhi can be uncompromising at times. Rajiv Gandhi also is quite hot-blooded and passionate with a strong desire for marriage.Rajiv Gandhi has a good-natured disposition and an affectionate and cordial manner. Charming, optimistic and outgoing, he is warm and friendly to everyone he meets. Gandhi is at peace with the world and want to share his feelings with his friends and acquaintances.His emotional life tends to be a bit strange and he is likely to fantasize a lot and to weave a web of illusions. Easily swayed by the needs of others, Rajiv Gandhi must learn not to take on others problems and also guard against others deceiving him.He is quietly devoted and faithful to his loved ones and often becomes subservient to his love partner. Rajiv Gandhi is more comfortable showing his love by doing or making something for his loved one, or simply being there for her, rather than by making any romantic, soul-stirring declarations. He is timid about expressing too much sentiment or emotion. Rajiv Gandhi also underestimates his attractiveness and lovability and doubts his own worthiness of love and appreciation.Gandhi is very much aware of his personal appearance, attractiveness and the other hand, Rajiv Gandhi is concerned with getting along with others and he has a pleasing, agreeable manner that people find quite appealing.

Rajiv uses tact or charm to get what he wants rather than intense effort or force. His desire for love and affection colours everything Rajiv Gandhi does.He is kindhearted and generous with both his money and his affections, and he is not happy if he has to budget or restrict himself in any way. Pettiness or stinginess is foreign to Rajiv’s nature and Rajiv Gandhi feels most comfortable in an elegant, beautiful atmosphere. Asceticism is not for Gandhi. Gracious and charitable, he enjoys sponsoring social events or cultural activities. Rajiv Gandhi has an optimistic, friendly attitude towards others and tends to bring out the finer side of people. It was expected that he is likely to fall in love with someone who is Noble and idealistic. That surely has happened.Rajiv Gandhi craves emotional excitement and needs to feel spontaneous and free, so he may avoid making firm personal commitments. Unusual or nontraditional forms of love and relationships appeal to Gandhi, and he is attracted to unique, creative or unstable people.Rajiv expresses his feelings openly, but sometimes could feel hurt if people do not respond to him. Rajiv Gandhi also has a strong drive to express himself in artistic ways.

US Citizenship Benefits For US Military Personnel And Service Men

Recognizing the sacrifices made by the Non-US citizen members working for the US army, the USCIS helps the service men to apply for US Citizenship through special provisions.Non US citizen members of the US armed forces and their dependents are hence eligible for American Citizenship. There are special provisions in the Immigration and Nationality act through which a service man is eligible to apply for Citizenship.Service in the US Armed Forces includes people working in the-Army-Navy-Air Force-Marine Corps-Coast Guard-Reserve of the National Guard-Reserve of the Ready ReserveUSCIS has streamlined a process, which helps the people in active duty as well as the people who have been recently discharged. The non-US citizens working for the US armed forces are required to possess certain qualifications such as knowledge of the English language and the US laws along with being a person with good moral character.WHO CAN APPLYPeople who are serving the US armed forces and people who had served in a period of conflict are eligible to apply.

Service men who were admitted into the US as lawful permanent residents and people who are present physically in the US, at the time of enlistment can also apply.People who are currently working for the U.S. Armed Forces and men who have been discharged from service are eligible to apply if they-had served the US Armed forces for one or more years-are lawful permanent residents-file their application for Citizenship while in service or six months prior to being discharged from their services-are attached to the rules of the US ConstitutionBENEFITS-The service men are not required to submit any filing fee for Citizenship-The Naturalization process can be taken overseas at a US embassy or consulate abroad-Spouses of the service men are eligible to apply for expedited Naturalization-Children of the service men are eligible for Naturalization-Posthumous Citizenship benefits are awarded to the surviving family members of military men who die while in service-Eligible service men of the U.S.

Armed Forces are also exempt from other naturalization necessities such as continuous residence and physical presence in the US-Survivor benefits are provided to the family members of the service men who were deceased when in service.FORMS TO BE SUBMITTEDYou must file form N-400, Application for Naturalization along with N-426, Request for Certification of Military or Naval Service. Form N-426 must be certified by the military before submitting to the USCIS.If a person has obtained citizenship through his military service and is separate from the military for a reason other than honorable conditions, before the completion of five years of service, then his Citizenship may be revoked.

Enabling The Rural Poor to Rise Above The Shackles of Chronic Poverty

Employment Guarantee Scheme is designed to minimize the administrative costs and the effects associated with targeted transfers. The EGS guarantees that every individual who wants a job in the rural areas will be given one. There is however the pre-requisite of the worker willing to do work on a piece rate basis. If the EGS provides an employment guarantee it will tend to increase the prevailing level of agricultural wages. The EGS is implemented through a three tier set up comprising committees for planning, direction and co-ordination at the state. India is one of the few countries in the world where all sorts of anti poverty programmes have been tried out. Apart from the Central government sponsored schemes, state governments have tried out various types of poverty alleviation programmes. The EGS operations are driven by a sense of purpose and in the absence of employment insurance in India the EGS can act as an insurance for workers. It can be proved by research that the EGS has performed better than other poverty schemes in India. Ministers such as Nitin Raut have played a significant part in ensuring employment among rural masses.

The Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Scheme has been a subject of much research, much of the deliberations and decisions for and against the introduction of this scheme remains untouched. The Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Scheme is often held up as a model for rural works programmes for other states in the country. Like the MEGS the NREGS is expected to create productive assets to then ensure development of rural areas through unemployment of unskilled labor. The MEGS was set up to those who cannot find work so as to provide a basis level of subsistence. Therefore the main objective of this scheme is to reduce distress and not to enable people to escape from poverty. One of the objectives of the EGS is to create durable community assets for long term development. Assets are created on public resources mainly related to land and water. There has some been criticism about the quality of the work done -the usual problem associated with most public works programmes this scheme has been ineffective for various reasons. The issue of poor monitoring and lack of strong support by social and political groups is also another important reason as to why this scheme cannot be completely effective. Funds are especially collected and ear marked for the scheme through a levy of special taxes on profession, trades and employment. It helps families to escape from the firm grip of poverty that are caused due to low levels of wage rate and spells of unemployment.